Macro Calculator Introduction
What are Macronutrients (Macro)?
In the context of health and fitness, by definition, macronutrients refer to carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Some definitions also include water, air, calcium, sodium, chloride ions, and some other substances, along with more typical macronutrients, since they are needed in large quantities by the human body. In this calculator, we only calculate daily carbohydrate, protein, and fat needs.
Micronutrients are another essential part of human nutrition and consist of vitamins and dietary minerals such as Vitamin A, copper, iron, and iodine. While macronutrients are necessary daily in amounts on the order of grams, humans typically only need fewer than 100 milligrams of micronutrients each day.
Proteins are organic compounds comprised of amino acids, and are one of the types of macronutrients. Amino acids are essential to a person’s well-being, and there are certain amino acids that can only be obtained through diet. These amino acids are typically referred to as “essential amino acids,” and are obtained by humans and other animals through the consumption of protein.
There are numerous sources of protein, both animal (meat, dairy, etc.) and plant-based (beans, legumes, nuts, seeds, etc.). There also exist protein supplements that are sometimes used by people who are trying to build muscle. Although protein is a necessary part of the human diet, as with most things, moderation is important. There are also healthier and unhealthier proteins.
Healthier proteins include:
- Skinless poultry
- Lean beef
- Low-fat dairy products
Unhealthier proteins include:
- Fried meats
- Processed meats (deli meats, sausages, fast-food burgers etc.)
- High sugar yogurts
- Processed protein bars
- Many cheeses
Carbohydrates, often referred to as simply “carbs,” are compounds that are typically classified as sugar, starch, or fiber. Sugar is the simplest form of carbohydrate, while starch and fiber are complex carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are often also classified based on the number of saccharides that comprise them: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides are often referred to as “simple carbohydrates,” while oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are referred to as “complex carbohydrates.”
Glucose is a monosaccharide and is one of the key sources of energy for humans, as well as other animals. Polysaccharides such as cellulose cannot be easily metabolized by many organisms, including humans, but can still provide them with valuable dietary fibers, which helps with digestion. Too many carbohydrates in the form of sugar (common in processed foods) can have negative health effects, but more complex carbohydrates (from vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, etc.), particularly those that provide dietary fibers, are beneficial, and necessary for the human body.
Fats are molecules that are comprised primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Common examples include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides. Although fats, in the context of nutrition, are typically viewed as unhealthy, they have both structural as well as metabolic functions, and are a necessary part of the human diet. They are also highly energy dense and are the most efficient form of energy storage.
Fats are typically classified based on the bonding of carbon atoms. In terms of dietary fats, the most referenced fats include saturated fats, unsaturated fats, trans fats, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and omega-3 fatty acids. Generally, saturated and trans fats are considered unhealthy fats, while monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and omega-3 fatty acids are healthier, better sources of fat for the body.
General recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans for 2015-2020 include entirely avoiding trans fats where possible, limiting saturated fat intake to comprise less than 10% of calories consumed per day, and ideally replacing saturated fats in the diet with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
Daily Calorie Needs
The number of calories a person needs to consume daily is mainly based on several factors including height, weight, age, and activity level, along with whether the person wants to maintain, lose, or gain weight. The values returned by the calculator are based on two equations for estimating the basal metabolic rate (BMR) or resting daily energy expenditure (RDEE) of a person. Once the BMR or RDEE is calculated, they are then multiplied by an activity factor to estimate daily caloric needs.
Based on the above factors, an average person may need to consume anywhere from 1600-3000 calories a day. The recommendations are generally higher for men (2000-3000) than women (1600-2400), and an increased activity level requires more calories, while a sedentary person would require less.
As carbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide nearly the entire energy needs of the human body, their daily needs can be calculated based on the daily caloric need. The values returned by the calculator are an estimate based on standards and guidelines provided by several institutions, such as the American Dietetic Association, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and more.
Macronutrients in Common Foods
|Apple||1 (4 oz.)||0.27g||14.36g||0.18g|
|Banana||1 (6 oz.)||1.85g||38.85g||0.56g|
|Orange||1 (4 oz.)||0.79g||11.79g||0.23g|
|Pear||1 (5 oz.)||0.54g||21.91g||0.17g|
|Peach||1 (6 oz.)||1.2g||12.59g||0.33g|
|Beef, regular, cooked||2 oz.||14.2g||0g||10.4g|
|Chicken, cooked||2 oz.||16g||0g||1.84g|
|Fish, Catfish, cooked||2 oz.||9.96g||4.84g||8.24g|
|Pork, cooked||2 oz.||15.82g||0g||8.26g|
|Shrimp, cooked||2 oz.||15.45g||0.69g||1.32g|
|Bread, white||1 slice (1 oz.)||1.91g||12.65g||0.82g|
|Caesar salad||3 cups||16.3g||21.12g||45.91g|
|Dark Chocolate||1 oz.||1.57g||16.84g||9.19g|
|Pizza||1 slice (14″)||13.32g||33.98g||12.13g|
|Rice||1 cup cooked||4.2g||44.08g||0.44g|
|Sandwich||1 (6″ Subway Turkey Sandwich)||18g||46g||3.5g|
|Coca-Cola Classic||1 can||0g||39g||0g|
|Diet Coke||1 can||0g||0g||0g|
|Milk (1%)||1 cup||8.22g||12.18g||2.37g|
|Milk (2%)||1 cup||8.05g||11.42g||4.81g|
|Milk (Whole)||1 cup||7.86g||11.03g||7.93g|
|Orange Juice||1 cup||1.74g||25.79g||0.5g|
|Apple cider||1 cup||0.15g||28.97g||0.27g|
|Yogurt (low-fat)||1 cup||12.86g||17.25g||3.8g|
|Yogurt (non-fat)||1 cup||13.01g||17.43g||0.41g|